Wednesday, May 30, 2018

Squat and Throw a Weight Ball

If no one is using an exercise rack, perform squats in front of it and throw a weight ball against the top part of the rack. Catch the ball as you stand. The weight ball should be heavy enough for a workout but not so heavy that it interferes with your balance.

This works out your upper and lower body.

Repeat for two to four sets of 10 repetitions, according to ability.

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Squat with Bended Knee

This is an advanced exercise, especially if not done on a machine. Perform a squat. When bending your knees, place one leg behind the other. Bend one knee behind the other. This varies muscle fibers used and may sculpt your legs (along with other exercise and perhaps dieting).

Do two sets of 10 repetitions and repeat, alternating legs.

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Saturday, April 28, 2018

Healthy Food Options

Great post on healthy food:

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Sunday, February 25, 2018

Resistance Training before Cardiovascular Training

Generally, or for big muscles like quadriceps and exercises like squats, do them before cardiovascular training. One reason is that you don't want to tire them out before half an hour or more of cardiovascular training. More information is here:

Sunday, November 05, 2017

Respiration Summary Lesson

I am preparing this for my biology class.

The basic molecule of obtaining energy is adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, as we learned. Energy is released when a phosphate is released to yield adenosine diphosphate. This happens millions of times a second in each cell. Eventually, the ADP gains back the P04 to become ATP so the process can start over again.



We have slow twitch and fast twitch muscles in the body. Slow twitch muscles perform better in endurance events like the Marathon we just had in New York City. Each person differs in how much slow or fast twitch muscle they have. All muscles have both types of muscle fibers. Some people are better at sprinting because they have more fast twitch muscles.

These two muscle types have different processes for making ATP. Cells in both types of muscle fiber break down glucose and use the chemical energy to produce ATP, but slow-twitch muscle fibers do sow aerobically – using oxygen, while fast-twitch muscle fibers do so anaerobically.

Plants and some bacteria or algae are producers and autotrophs; they make their own nutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, fats – from inorganic material and the sun’s energy. Material includes nutrients from the soil and water. Heterotrophs derive raw material for their carbohydrates, fats and proteins from other organisms such as plants or animals. Humans are heterotrophs.


In plants, chlorophyll in chloroplasts uses the sun’s energy, carbon dioxide and water to form sugar. Plants also use nutrients and nitrogen from the soil to form proteins. So, according to what vegetable we eat, we get a different amount of grams of carbohydrates or protein.

Photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy. Respiration uses oxygen, released by plants into the atmosphere, to convert energy in chemical bonds of organic fuels to ATP, which is another source of chemical energy.

For both plants and animals, the production of ATP during respiration occurs in mitochondria.

Plants store energy in photosynthesis and then use respiration themselves to harvest this energy. Photosynthesis produces fuels and respiration burns them.

Starch in potatoes is a polysaccharide. Some engineers are getting ethanol fuel from plants.

Aerobic Cellular Respiration

Involves taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide.

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O

glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water

About 32 ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule burned.

Related image 

Oxidation = removal of electrons
Reduction = addition of electrons

NADH carries electrons from glucose and other molecules and deposits them on top of the electron transport chain. The molecule at the bottom of the chai drops the electrons to oxygen.

Three Parts of Cellular Respiration

A.    Glycolysis
Glycol – sweet or sugar lysis – splitting

Glucose is split into two pyruvic acids. Two molecules of ATP are used but after the electron transport cycle with NAD+, four ATPS are produced, for a net of two ATP molecules per molecule of glucose.

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B.     Citric Acid Cycle or TCA or Krebs Cycle completes the breakdown of glucose.

Pyruvic acid is changed to acetic acid. Each acetic acid is attached to coenzyme A from B vitamin pantothenic acid. Acetyl CoA is formed. They enter into the citric acid cycle. CoA is recycled. Acetic acid plus carbons forms citric acid. For each acetic acid molecule, tow carbon dioxides exit. Some energy makes ATP, but more energy from NADH and FADH2 is used to make even more ATP.

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Different sugars are involved.

C.     Electron transport Chain
This is a redox reaction: Electrons are lost. This is called oxidation. Glucose loses electrons to oxygen and is oxidized. Energy is released. Oxygen is one of the strongest electron grabber atoms. The electrons of the hydrogen in glucose “fall” into their  new bonds with oxygen. The path of electrons from glucose to oxygen happens with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. NAD+ is reduced to NADH.

 This is part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria.

Figure 6.11 A concentration gradient of H+ in the inner mitochondria is the potential energy source that drives ATP production by the enzyme ATP synthase.

Figure 6.13 Carbohydrates enter respiration via glycolysis; glycerol enters respiration via glycolysis from fats; fatty acids at acetyl CoA and protein amino acids at all three.

Anaerobic Respiration

Image result for yeast fermentation equationWhen your muscles use AATP faster than your blood can deliver oxygen, as in intense workouts or sports, anaerobic respiration takes over. Muscles can work anaerobically for 15 seconds. Then they use fermentation to generate ATP. During anaerobic respiration, there is no oxygen to accept electrons. Instead, NADH disposes of electrons by adding them to pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis. Figure 6.4
Pyruvic acid + electrons yields lactic acid. It is transported to the liver and converted back to pyruvic acid.

Image result for anaerobic respiration formula

Anaerobic respiration yields just 2 ATPs.

Some microorganisms just need anaerobic respiration. Some of these transform milk to cheese, sour cream and yogurt. Yeast uses both respiration and fermentation. IF there is no oxygen in their environment, they resort to anaerobic respiration. Ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide are the  waste product. Beer and wine are produced this way. Yeast in bread yield carbon dioxide that causes dough to rise.

Sunday, October 22, 2017

Fascia Stretching

As I am renewing my fitness training license and reading the High-Performance Training for Sports book, I will also review what fascia is, as well as tendons and interior muscle fibers and how one can work those out. I think most exercises and sports do not strengthen, elongate those parts.

I am not sure of the scientific validity of the below Web sites,but it seems fascinating. I will keep checking on fascia and stretching it. He claims that injuries are "stored" in fascia,when they are stretched, you get rid of parts of them in sweat,urination and defecation.

It seems that paying attention to fascia,tendons and inner muscle fibers would take fitness, dance and team sports to a  new level. However, the authors mention that too much fascia stretching may reduce strength. This varies by the individual. Studies, they wrote, are not consistent, well-designed of conclusive.

Friday, October 20, 2017

Nordic Hamstring Curls to Prevent Injury

Hey, I never heard of this. I am updating my ISSA fitness trainer license and read about this in High Performance Training for Sports by David Joyce and Daniel Lewinson.

There are pros and cons. Here are some and a demonstration video.

Monday, October 16, 2017

Single-Leg Hip Rotation for Abdominals, Plus Variation

Stand with your legs shoulder-width apart Cross your arms at your chest for stability. Start with either leg first for four sets of 10 repetitions. Bend the knee 90 degrees. Both knees are facing forward at this point. Rotate your leg outwardly until your knee is 180 degrees to your hips. Return to the starting position. Repeat for four sets of 10 repetitions. Then do the same with the other leg. Breathe out when you rotate your leg away from your body and breathe in when you brig it back to center.


Start in the same way. When your leg is in the 180 degree position, bring it straight down to the floor. Your feet will then be in a 90 degree position with each other. Turn your foot to be straight with the floor that was already on the floor. This will activate your gluteus maximus and all your abdominals, including the opposite side obliques. Repeat for four sets of 10 repetitions. Then do the same with the other leg. B

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