Sunday, November 05, 2017

Respiration Summary Lesson

I am preparing this for my biology class.

The basic molecule of obtaining energy is adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, as we learned. Energy is released when a phosphate is released to yield adenosine diphosphate. This happens millions of times a second in each cell. Eventually, the ADP gains back the P04 to become ATP so the process can start over again.



We have slow twitch and fast twitch muscles in the body. Slow twitch muscles perform better in endurance events like the Marathon we just had in New York City. Each person differs in how much slow or fast twitch muscle they have. All muscles have both types of muscle fibers. Some people are better at sprinting because they have more fast twitch muscles.

These two muscle types have different processes for making ATP. Cells in both types of muscle fiber break down glucose and use the chemical energy to produce ATP, but slow-twitch muscle fibers do sow aerobically – using oxygen, while fast-twitch muscle fibers do so anaerobically.

Plants and some bacteria or algae are producers and autotrophs; they make their own nutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, fats – from inorganic material and the sun’s energy. Material includes nutrients from the soil and water. Heterotrophs derive raw material for their carbohydrates, fats and proteins from other organisms such as plants or animals. Humans are heterotrophs.


In plants, chlorophyll in chloroplasts uses the sun’s energy, carbon dioxide and water to form sugar. Plants also use nutrients and nitrogen from the soil to form proteins. So, according to what vegetable we eat, we get a different amount of grams of carbohydrates or protein.

Photosynthesis converts light energy to chemical energy. Respiration uses oxygen, released by plants into the atmosphere, to convert energy in chemical bonds of organic fuels to ATP, which is another source of chemical energy.

For both plants and animals, the production of ATP during respiration occurs in mitochondria.

Plants store energy in photosynthesis and then use respiration themselves to harvest this energy. Photosynthesis produces fuels and respiration burns them.

Starch in potatoes is a polysaccharide. Some engineers are getting ethanol fuel from plants.

Aerobic Cellular Respiration

Involves taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide.

C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O

glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water

About 32 ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule burned.

Related image 

Oxidation = removal of electrons
Reduction = addition of electrons

NADH carries electrons from glucose and other molecules and deposits them on top of the electron transport chain. The molecule at the bottom of the chai drops the electrons to oxygen.

Three Parts of Cellular Respiration

A.    Glycolysis
Glycol – sweet or sugar lysis – splitting

Glucose is split into two pyruvic acids. Two molecules of ATP are used but after the electron transport cycle with NAD+, four ATPS are produced, for a net of two ATP molecules per molecule of glucose.

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B.     Citric Acid Cycle or TCA or Krebs Cycle completes the breakdown of glucose.

Pyruvic acid is changed to acetic acid. Each acetic acid is attached to coenzyme A from B vitamin pantothenic acid. Acetyl CoA is formed. They enter into the citric acid cycle. CoA is recycled. Acetic acid plus carbons forms citric acid. For each acetic acid molecule, tow carbon dioxides exit. Some energy makes ATP, but more energy from NADH and FADH2 is used to make even more ATP.

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Different sugars are involved.

C.     Electron transport Chain
This is a redox reaction: Electrons are lost. This is called oxidation. Glucose loses electrons to oxygen and is oxidized. Energy is released. Oxygen is one of the strongest electron grabber atoms. The electrons of the hydrogen in glucose “fall” into their  new bonds with oxygen. The path of electrons from glucose to oxygen happens with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD+. NAD+ is reduced to NADH.

 This is part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria.

Figure 6.11 A concentration gradient of H+ in the inner mitochondria is the potential energy source that drives ATP production by the enzyme ATP synthase.

Figure 6.13 Carbohydrates enter respiration via glycolysis; glycerol enters respiration via glycolysis from fats; fatty acids at acetyl CoA and protein amino acids at all three.

Anaerobic Respiration

Image result for yeast fermentation equationWhen your muscles use AATP faster than your blood can deliver oxygen, as in intense workouts or sports, anaerobic respiration takes over. Muscles can work anaerobically for 15 seconds. Then they use fermentation to generate ATP. During anaerobic respiration, there is no oxygen to accept electrons. Instead, NADH disposes of electrons by adding them to pyruvic acid produced by glycolysis. Figure 6.4
Pyruvic acid + electrons yields lactic acid. It is transported to the liver and converted back to pyruvic acid.

Image result for anaerobic respiration formula

Anaerobic respiration yields just 2 ATPs.

Some microorganisms just need anaerobic respiration. Some of these transform milk to cheese, sour cream and yogurt. Yeast uses both respiration and fermentation. IF there is no oxygen in their environment, they resort to anaerobic respiration. Ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide are the  waste product. Beer and wine are produced this way. Yeast in bread yield carbon dioxide that causes dough to rise.

Sunday, October 22, 2017

Fascia Stretching

As I am renewing my fitness training license and reading the High-Performance Training for Sports book, I will also review what fascia is, as well as tendons and interior muscle fibers and how one can work those out. I think most exercises and sports do not strengthen, elongate those parts.

I am not sure of the scientific validity of the below Web sites,but it seems fascinating. I will keep checking on fascia and stretching it. He claims that injuries are "stored" in fascia,when they are stretched, you get rid of parts of them in sweat,urination and defecation.

It seems that paying attention to fascia,tendons and inner muscle fibers would take fitness, dance and team sports to a  new level. However, the authors mention that too much fascia stretching may reduce strength. This varies by the individual. Studies, they wrote, are not consistent, well-designed of conclusive.

Friday, October 20, 2017

Nordic Hamstring Curls to Prevent Injury

Hey, I never heard of this. I am updating my ISSA fitness trainer license and read about this in High Performance Training for Sports by David Joyce and Daniel Lewinson.

There are pros and cons. Here are some and a demonstration video.

Monday, October 16, 2017

Single-Leg Hip Rotation for Abdominals, Plus Variation

Stand with your legs shoulder-width apart Cross your arms at your chest for stability. Start with either leg first for four sets of 10 repetitions. Bend the knee 90 degrees. Both knees are facing forward at this point. Rotate your leg outwardly until your knee is 180 degrees to your hips. Return to the starting position. Repeat for four sets of 10 repetitions. Then do the same with the other leg. Breathe out when you rotate your leg away from your body and breathe in when you brig it back to center.


Start in the same way. When your leg is in the 180 degree position, bring it straight down to the floor. Your feet will then be in a 90 degree position with each other. Turn your foot to be straight with the floor that was already on the floor. This will activate your gluteus maximus and all your abdominals, including the opposite side obliques. Repeat for four sets of 10 repetitions. Then do the same with the other leg. B

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Saturday, September 30, 2017

Lie on Your Belly and Work Out Your Hamstrings and Gluteus Maximus

Lie on your belly and rest your upper body. Turn out your legs and touch your heels together at 90 degrees over your hips. Lower your legs to about two inches over the ground and bring them back up to the starting position. Repeat for ten repetitions of fours sets.

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Friday, August 04, 2017

Weight Loss Article in Time Magazine, June 9,2017

An article in Time by Alexandra Sifferlin is about how weight loss varies among different people. Scientists and doctors have not figured out which diet, such as low-carbohydrate or lo-fat, works best for people. An increasing amount of Americans are overweight: 71% are overweight and 40% are obese. In one study, the same amount of people lost weight in each of two groups put in a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet experienced , and the same amount of people gaining it back. In fact, people who lose weight keep it off for about 5.5 years and then gain it back. The simple adage of burn more calories than  you eat may not work for everyone.

More than 10,000 people are registered in the Brown University National weight Control Registry. Many of them report trying different diets before losing weight. they tend to eat breakfast and watch less than 10 hours of television  a week. Dr. Rena Wing, a professor of psychiatry and human behavior at Brown University, runs the study. According to her, no two people in the study lost weight in exactly the same way. 

Genes may have something to do with weight gain and loss. Experts have identified more than 100 genetic markers that are linked to weight, but they say that these account for about 3% of differences between people's sizes. Scientists are also exploring how weight gain may be associated with chemicals in everyday items such as mattresses and store receipts may be interfering with the normal functioning of hormones by mimicking them. An individual's microbe environment on or in their bodies may also influence weight.

This study to me shows how it is important to know yourself and your body to see what diet and - or exercise regime works best for you. It is also important to get off a plateau in dieting or exercise. If you do something for too long, your body gets used to it and it has less of an effect.

The article can be found at

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Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Rhabdomyolysis and Spin Class

Always warm up before exercise and cool down after exercise. You know your body. Some days you may not be able to do as hard of a workout as other days due to a previous day's hard workout, stress etc.

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Thursday, July 13, 2017

Kettleball Squats

This is a hard squat exercise. Keep your elbows open on the side and hold a kettleball in each. hand. The kettleball should be heavy enough to offer a good resistance but to still allow you to do four sets of 10 repetitions. Just keeping the kettleballs out on the side by you is hard enough. It is a workout for your pectoralis muscles, shoulders and to a lesser extent your biceps and triceps, which are stabilizes. Then with the squats. you work the lower body muscles. 

Good luck!

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Thursday, June 08, 2017

Side lunges

You can do this with free weights held at your shoulders (advanced) or with your arms at your sides.

Stand with legs shoulder width apart. Step your left foot behind the other while bending both legs. Try to get your right leg as close to a 90 degree angle as you can.Lunge with your left leg. Repeat for four sets of ten repetitions.
Switch legs.

Stretch your quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors and abductors. This is an advanced exercise, with or without free weights. You can also do it with a barbell behind your neck, but free weights are less strenuous on the neck and back.

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Thursday, June 01, 2017

Half Roller

I always wondered what half rollers were for, until I recently saw a female  trainer doing lunges on the flat side of one, as the curved side was on the floor. I of course knew that doing the lunges on the half roller would better her balance. I asked her what muscles seemed most activated. She said her gluteus maximus. I thought it would be the main leg adductor or sartorius. When I tried it, that is where I felt it. 

Upon her recommendation, I did front and side leg lifts on the half roller,while balancing standing on the opposite leg. As I thought, deep abdominal muscles are activated when you do leg raises and other exercises on the side roller. (The curved side of the half roller rests on the floor.)

Try it! Pick an exercise and do at least two sets of 10 repetitions. Work your way up each week. See if your deep muscles are activated, sucking in your surrounding muscles and fat tissue for a thinner look, and increasing your strength and balance.

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Tuesday, January 03, 2017

Reverse Plank for Abdominal Muscles

Happy New Year everybody! May all your healthy wishes come true!

For this exercise, "sit" on your palms and feet. Lift your back and hips in a parallel manner while your arms and bent legs form a bridge or table. Lift your right arm and left leg to touch. Repeat with your left arm and right leg. Use a slight twist each time to add an oblique workout.

Repeat for 10 repetitions and add sets if you can. This is difficult on your wrists, and of course your abdominal muscles.

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